著者名 Don Diego de Saavedra Fajardo (1584-1648)

書名 The royal politician represented in one hundred emblems
原題 [Idea de un principe politico-cristiano]
Empresas politicas
出版・頒布事項 London : Printed for Matt. Gylliflower ..., and Luke Meredith
..., 1700.
形態事項 2 v. ([23], 376; [3], 384, [1] p.) : ill., ports.
注記 Microfilm 英訳者 Sir Ja. Astry
本文言語コード 英語

The Author to the Reader.

IN the toilsome Leisure of my continual Travels over Germany, and several other Countries, I compos’d these Hundred Emblems; wherein you have an Idea of a Royal Christian politician, penning them down at vacant Intervals. These I had meditated on in my Journeys upon the Road, as oft as that continual Intercourse I had by letters with his Catholick Majesty and his Ministers, and other publick concerns incumbent on me, gave me Time and LeiSure. By Degrees the Work swell’d, and though I was well assured, it came far short of Perfection, as not being compil’d with that continual Application of Thought, nor with that Accuracy and Labour corrected, as was requisite to have render’d it agreeable in all its Parts, and an absolutely perfect Piece; and that it [A3]would be thought Pride in me, to presume to prescribe Precepts to Princes(1):However , the Importunity of my Friends (who have ever great Influence over me)prevail’d upon me to publish it; in which also Self-love

had some part, for we are generally as fond of the Products of our Brain, as of those of Nature. I write not this, Reader, to excuse my Errors, for that I can’t do sufficiently, but that I may more easily obtain Pardon of those, who shall consider my Zeal, in having amidst such a Croud of Business, Fatigues, and Dangers, compil’d this Book, that if any Benefit might be reap’d from it, it might accrue to my Prince and Master; and least with me should die the Experience which I have acquir’d by a continued Exercise in Business for Four and thirty Years, which after five yeas Study in the University of Salamanca, I have pass’d in the principal Courts of Europe, always employ’d in Publik Affairs, having been at Rome at the Election of two Popes; at the Assembly of the Electoral Princes at Ratisbone when Ferdinand the Third, the present most August Emperor, was created King of the Romans; at Eight Diets in Switzerland; and lastly at the Imperial Diet at Ratisbone, being Plenipotentiary for the most Serene House and Circle of Burgundy. Wherefore, if any one of these Political counsels or Precepts, shall be any ways beneficial to him who is happpily born to govern both the Old andNew World, I believe this Attempt will be excus’d. Nor should any one be disgusted at the Use of Emblems, since God himself is the Author of them. The Brazen-Serpent(2), The Flaming-Bush(3), Gideon’s  Fleece(4), The Amours of the kind Spouse(7), What Are they else but Emblems? It has been my chiefest Endeavour to have the Invention new; whether the Performance be answerable


(1)Praecipere qualis debeat esse princeps, pulchrum quidem, & generosum, & prope superbum. Plin. Jun, lib. 3. Epist. 18. (2)Numb. 21. (3)Exodus 3. (4)Judges 6. (5)Judges 14. (6)Exodus 28. (7)Song of Solomon.


I know not. There have been many Ingenious Men, who have wrote upon the same Subject, and ‘tis very obvious for different Persons to Jump upon the same

Thoughts; which has been my Fortune, having afterwards met with in other Authors, those Emblems which I at first thought my own Invention, which I therefore

thought fit wholly to omit, not without Prejudice to my Design, for my Predecessors have made use of several Figures and Motto’s, which has oblig’d me to take up with others less proper.

 Also some Political Precepts, which though my own, as to the Invention at least, yet I have sound since to be of other, and far more ancient Authority: I have therefore Inserted the Authors Names in the Margin, that due Honour may be paid to Antiquity. T’was the Happiness of the Wits of former Ages, that they could engross from their Posterity the Glory of Invention. I have made it my Design and Care, to Interweave

this Web with some Threads of Cornelius Tacitus, without doubt the most accomplish’d Master of Princes, and who most judiciously penetrates their Nature, and the Customs and Intrigues of Courts, as also the Miscarriages and Success of Governments; with Precepts and Sentences taken from this Great Man, as with my Hand, I lead the Prince whom I would mould by these Emblems, that he may without danger, gather Flowers transplanted hither from anothers Garden, and purg’d from the Venom and Thorns which their native Soil frequently subjects them to, or the rankness of those times produc’d. In this Second Edition, I also illustrate the principal Maxims of State, with Proofs from Holy the Scriptures ; for those Politicks which are refin’d in that Furnace, may be truly call’d Silver try’d and refined seven times in the Fire of Truth(8). And who would learn of a Heathen, or Impious Person , when the Holy Spirit is so ready to give Instruction?


(8)Psalm 12. 7. The Words of the Lord are pure Words; as

Silver tried in a Furnace of Earth, purified seven times,


 In explaining the Emblems, I am not too prolix, that the Reader may nott lose the Satisfaction of discovering their meaning of himself. If by Chance, in my Discourse, I sprinkle a little Learning, it is not out of Ostentation, but to enlighten the Prince’s Mind, and render the Instruction more agreeable.

 The whole Work consists purely of State Maxims and Rules, those being the fittest Materials for such a Politick Building; however I don’t barely propose them, but intermix them with the whole Discourse, applying them all along to particular Cases, to avoid the Danger of general Precepts.

 It has been also my Endeavour to render the Stile polite, but not obscure; which in Horace’s Judgment was a difficult Matter(9), and of which I have not yet seen an instance in the Castillian Language. I have however made an Essay towards it, knowing that what is written to Princes should be neither idly Sententious, nor superfluously Copious. Their time is precious, and he does not a little obstruct the Publick Interest, who with empty and frivolous Discourse diverts them from Affairs

of greater Importance.

 I don’t so wholly confine my self to the Institution and Direction of Princes, but that I also descend to Governments, reflect upon their Growth, Preservation, and Fall; and so to frame a Minister of State, and a prudent Courtier.

 If at any time I am liberal of my Commendations of any, ‘tis to excite Emulation, not to Flatter, to which I am very averse; for it were a Crime unpardonable to publish to the whole World, Flatteries, and those too engraven in Brass, or to make my self guilty of

the very same thing, which I so much reprove and discommend in others.

 If I speak the Truth with too much Freedom, `tis to be imputed to ambition, which is so deeply rooted in Mens minds, that without Fire and Sword `tis incurable.


(9)Brevis esse laboro obscurus fio, Hor.


The Doctrine is general; but if any one shall from a Resemblance of Vices, think himself levell’d at, or that what is blam’d in him is commended in others,

‘t is not my Fault(10)

 As also when I reprove Princes Actions, or reflect upon Tyrants, or only on the Nature of Sovereignty, to do ill, when either he is not clearly inform’d of theTruth, same I would have understood of Commonwealths, if in any thing I seem to dislike them; for either my Reflections are upon what is very usual in Communities, or at least comprehend not those crown’d and well constituted Republicks, whose Government is Generous and Royal.

 I have us’d Examples, both Ancient and Modern; those for their Authority, these partly as being more persuasive, partly too, because by Reason of Propinquity of time, the State of Affairs is less altered, and consequently may with less Danger be imitated, and a Prudent and Politick Judgment may more safely be formed thereon, which is the principal Advantage of History. Nor is our Age so barren of virtuous and great Atchievements, as not to have furnish’d us and our Posterity with good Examples(11). Besides, really it were black and envious in us to extol ancient, without the least regard to modern Actions(12).

 I am well assur’d, Reader, that Books of this nature which treat of State +Affairs, are like Statues, which in running at the Quintin, all aim at with their Lances, all strike. I well know that whoever designs to be an Author, must submit to the Black Ink, and Press of Detraction, (which I design’d to signify by this Emblem;) but withal I am not ignorant, that the blacker that Ink, with which the Letters are daub’d, and the closer the Press wherewith they are press’d, the fairer afterwards, and more conspicuous they appear.


(10)Tac. 4. ann. Qui ob fimilitudinem altena malefacta sibi objectari

putant. (11)Tac. 4.Hift. (12)Ibid. +Estafermos.




I Will not endeavour with Rhetorical Flourishes to captivate any Person into a good Opinion of my Author, or his Work, being sensible I should therein do an Injury to his Memory, who has so often declared his Aversion to Flattery. I only desire the Reader to remember always that he was by Birth a Spaniard, and though Educated in the Church of Rome, was by Profession a Lawyer and Statesman, who being generally wiser, are less bigotted to The foolish Principles and Practices of that Religion. However, as I think it on the one Hand needless to vindicate the Illustrious House of Nassau from his partial Reflections, (which were modish in the Spanish Court when he wrote(1)) the whole World being satisfied in the Justice of their Cause, the Heroick Prosecution thereof, and what Additional Laurels they justly acquir’d thereby; so on the other side, I would not be thought to recommend his religion either to Prince or People. We too lately escaped the Snare, to be again entangled with the Knaveries or Fooleries, to say no worse, of the Church or Court of Rome; and next under God must own Our sole Deliverance to a Branch of that Ancient and Imperial Family, our present Gracious Sovereign.


(1)   The first Edition that I know of, wasat Munster, Anno 1642.

which being near six Year before the Conclusion of the Peace there,

may serve as some Apology for the Author’s Reflections on the

Princes of Orange, and other Heroes of the Adverse Party.


These Precautions being observed, I humbly presume this Book will be of excellent Use to all Ingenuous Persons of what Degree or Quality soever. For though by the Title it seems calculated for the Meridian of Kings and Princes only, yet it in some measure comprehends all Persons within the Circumference of their Dominions.

 The Statesman and Politician may herein learn what Quali-

fications they ought to be endowed with or Negotiations, either at Home, or in Foreign Courts; how by avoiding the Vices usually attending their High Stations, and embracing the contrary Virtues, they may render their Actions meritorious to their Prince or Country.

 The Officers and Soldiers of an Army may here without Danger behold the Methods and Stratagems their Predecessors have used to Conquer their Enemies, and learn that their greatest Interest consists in good Order and Discipline and absolute Obedience to their Superiors, that Vice is as pernicious in a Camp as a Court, and that Bravery and Virtue in Conjunction merit the greatest Reward and Affection from their

Prince or Country.

 The Merchants and Seamen may here behold the vast Advantage, their Profession is to a Government, and how Ships are the Moveable Poles, on which the Stability thereof depends.

 In fine, all Persons of Learning, Sense, or Reason, may from many excellent Precepts and eminent Examples contain’d therein, improve and refine their Talents to the greatest Advantage imaginable, remembering always my previous Caution to avoid some few mistaken Aphorisms of his Religion and Country.

 Our Celebrated Author, Don Diego Saavedra Faxardo, Knight of the Order of St.Jago, was Born of a Noble Family of Murcia in Spain. He was the Son of Peter de Saavedra and Fabiana Faxardo, who was also of Noble Extraction. He was Educated in the University of Salamanca, in the Profession of the Laws, wherein he became very Eminent, especially in those Parts thereof which are requisite for the Accomplishment of an Absolute Politician and Compleat Statesman. From thence he was chosen Secretary to Cardinal Gaspar Borgia, Vice-Roy of Naples, and soon after Resident for his Catholick Majesty at Rome; where his Conduct gain’d him so great Applause, that he was sent on the same Implay into Switzerland: After that, he was Plenipotentiary-Ambassador at two Imperial Diets at Ratisbone; and then commanded to assist Don Gaspar de Bracamont, Count de Pennecranda, at the famous Treaty of Munster, where he gave signal Demonstration of his great Experience and Dexterity in the Management of the most difficult Affairs of State. At his Return he sate in he Supreme Council for the Government of both the Indies; in which Impl{a}y he died at

Madrid in the Rear 1648. All that I know more of bim, you may find in his own Preface, to which, for brevity sake I refer you(2)

 The greatness of his Personal Character and Reputation, and of this Book in particular, are too well-establish’d in the World to require any Panegyricks on either; but if the Reader desire to see how this Work was admired by some of the most Learned of the Age, let him read the Epistles prefix’dto the Latin Version thereof. His Religious Temper more particularly appears in the great Veneration he always shews for the Holy Scripture, and his apt Application thereof; and his Pliticks no less by being so well read in Tacitus, the great Master thereof. Were that Excellent Roman no living, he could not but he pleased, to sce the Roughness and Crabbedness of his Stile so finely polish’d without Diminution to the profoundness of his Sense and fudgment, in our English Version; though in the Annotations thereof, he would find himself Rivald, if no exell’d by a Modern Politician. But there is no greater Argument to prove the general Approbation and kind Reception thereof, than the various Editions in several Languages, besides the Original, as Latin, French Italian, Portugese, and High-German. To enumerate the particular Times and Places of each Impression would he superfluous, were they all known to us. Let it suffice to inform you, that

(2)Nic. Antonio’s Bibliotheca Scrip. Hispan.

Miraeus’s Bibliotheca Ecclesiast.

Moreri’s Great Dictionary.


the Impression of he Original we chiefly made use of in this Version, is the Fourth Edition, Printed at Valencia, 1660. as being the most Correct we could meet with. He wrote also a Book, Entitnled, Corona Gothica, Castellanice, & Austriaca Politicamente Illustrada, Printed at Madrid, 1650. though, as some say, he died before he had compleated it.

 And here I cannot but observe how disingenuous (to say no worse) the Italian and French Translators, or rather Corruotors, of our Author have been, especially the last, who not content only to omit whole Pages and Sections, very material to the Purpose, have foisted in their own fulsome Flatteries instead thereof, basely perverting his very Sense and Meaning, to comply with the interest and Ambition of particular Persons or Governments. So dangerous a Thing is Truth in some Nations. But we have chose rather to draw the Copy after the full Proportion of the Original, being satisfied we have the Happiness to live in so well Constituted a Government, and under so Excellent a King, that Truth and Integritty are now become the great Accomplishments of a Courtier.

 Our Author taking occasion so often to mention Alphonsus the Wise, I presume it will not be thought unnecessary, or be unacceptable to some Readers, to give a short Account of him. He was the Tenth of that Name, king of Leon and Castile, and was also Sirnamed the Astrologer, and succeeded his father, Ferdinand the third, 1252. He made the Astronomical Tables, still Extant, which are called from his Name, Tabulae Alphonsinae; and `tis certainly affirm’d, That he spent 400000 Crowns in the composition of them. He refused the Imperial Crown of Germany, which was offered him after the Rejection of Richard, Duke of Cornwall, contenting himself only with the Title of Emperor, which some say he resigned to Pope Gregory the Tenth, whereof he repented, and would have reassumed the Imperial Title and Arms; but was deterred for fear of an Excommunication against him. He was successful against the Moors: but at length dethron’d by his own Son Sancho, and died for Grief in Anno 1284. In a great sickness, after many Remedies sued in vain, be began to read Quint. Curtius’s History of Alexander the Great, which he did with so much Delight, that he recovered his Health; whereupon he said, Farewell Avicen, Hippocrates, and the whole Croud of Doctors, give me my Curtius that hath saved my Life. He had read the Bible fourteen Times, with several Commentaries upon it; he was a great Astrologer, and after he had deeply considered the Fabrick of the World, the following saying of his, reported by Lipsus, denotes him to have been none of the most Pious; viz. That if God had advised with him in the Creation, he could have given him good Counsel(3)

  By the Great Captain, often also mentioned, is meant Gonzales of Cordova, who served under Ferdinand and Isabella, in the Conquest of Granada, and was very famous in his Time.

 It may perhaps, according to Custom, be expected we should give some Account of the present Performance; but that indeed is a very ticklish Point; for to Commend, or even Justify it would favour of Vanity; and to discover its Imperfections, would be very disobliging to our Friends, the Booksellers. I shall therefore in the Words of an Ingenuous and Judicious Author(4), desire you to consider, That there are certain Graces and Happinesses, peculiar to every Language which give Life and Energy to the Words. And whosoever offers at a Verbal Translation, shall have the Misfortune of that Young Traveller, who lost his own Language abroad, and brought home no other instead thereof. For the Grace of the Spanish will be lost by being turned into English words; and the Grace of the English by being turned into Spanish Phrase. However we have endeavoured to come as near the Sense of the Original, as we could, without offering to be Fidi Interpretes, that properly belonging to those who Translate Matters of Faith, or such Facts of Moment as have Relation thereunto.


(3)Mariana Hist. Hisp, Turquet, Roderick Geneh. Spond, Bzovius. (4)Sir John Denham


 The Reader is desired to take notice that our Author, a all others of his Religion, makes use of the Vulgar Translations in his Quotations out of the Holy Scripture, which in many Places is so different from the English Version, that they are not applicable to the Purpose for which he Quotes them. For Instance the Seventy eighth Emblem is a Syren or Mermaid, and the Motto, Formosa Superne, In the beginning thereof, he quotes Isaiah 13. 22. Et Sirenes in delubris voluptatis, which we Translate, and Dragons in their pleasant Places. How beautiful they are, unless we do them wrong, I leave you to judge. The Fifty fifth Emblem, is a Hand holding a Scepter full of Eyes; the Motto, His Praevide &Provide. He there quotes Jeremiah T.U. where the Vulgar has Virgam vigilantem ego video; the English, I see the Rod of an Almond Tree; which literally taken, is little to his Purpose, and therefore we leave it in the Sense he took it. The Word in the Hebrew,is Saked, for an almond Tree, and Verse the 12th,  Then said the Lord unto me, thou hast well seen, for I will hasten my Word to perform it. The Almond Tree is there mentioned as an Emblem of Hast; the word Saked, an Almond Tree, alluding to Sakad, a Word which signifies making Haste. Nor is the Allusion frivolous, for Pliny says, Floret omnium prima Amygdala, mense Januario, Martio vero Poma maturat. Lib. 16. c. 25. (5).

 Now, if any Person thinks himself represented herein, and likes not his Picture, let him consider he sate not for it, Artist, but amend the Original. As for that little Popery

that is in it, it has been so solidly confuted by many Eminent Divines of the Church of England, and so ridicul’d by others, that I presume, it cannot have the least Influence

on the meanest Protestant of the Nation. In Answer to what he reflects on some of his Majesty’s Heroick Ancestors, (if it may not rather be called an Encomium) I refer the Reader to that most Excellent and Unanswerable Apology,


 (5)Bochartus’s Geograph. Sacra. Phaleg, lib. c. 1. Canaan,

lib. 1. c. 35.


wrote by the Prince of Orange himself, and published in all Languages. And for a Conclusion, accept of the following Epigram, by an unknown Hand, representing that Illustrious Prince, as Prophetically, speaking to William the Third, our Present Gracious Sovereign.


Nassovius Coeli miratus ab Arce Nepotern 

 Ad Summum tantis passious ire Decus;

Macte, inquit, fanguis noster; tibi cedimus ultro,

 Quandoquidem cedunt Terra Fretumque tibi.

Me Duce parta meis Libertas pristina Belgis,

 Orbis Hyperboreus, te Duce, liber erit.


In English.


When Nassau from the Skies beheld his Son,

 With such large Steps the Race of honour Run;

Proceed, my Boy, proceed with joy, said He;

 I do, since Earth and Sea submit to thee.

I only to my Country freedom gave,

 You will the Northern World from Bondage save.



 作家 ディエゴ・デ・サアグン・ファハルド

作品 『道徳エンブレム』

→さらに詳しい別な記述は次書参照:『キリスト教人名辞典』(日本基督教団出版局 , 1986)614ページ